Bookends, Department of English Postgraduate Conference
When author met translator: an exploration of authorship and translatorship in the Gurugu Pledge (2017) written by Juan Tomás Ávila Laurel and translated by Jethro Soutar.
Venuti (2007, pg. 31) juxtaposes traditional yet commonly held definitions of ‘authorship’ and ‘translatorship’ referring to the first as synonymous with creation, originality and uniqueness whereas the latter is often associated with derivation, imitation, distortion and exploitation. Associated essentially with the function of the author and the translator, postmodernist (Barthes, 1968; Foucault, 1969) and postcolonial (Spivak, 1998) literary criticism have challenged the function and agency of both author and translator. Nonetheless, from the Middle Ages to today, the translator is “regarded as subordinate to the author” (Simon 1989, pg. 197) despite the parallel emergence of the translator as a necessary consequence of the existence of the author (Foucault, 1968, pg. 211-212). Nonetheless, the dialectical relationship between the commonly held functions of author and translator are being challenged not only by new professional paradigms such as Multiple Authorship (Stillinger, 1991) and Multiple Translatorship (Jansen and Wegener, 2013) but also by burgeoning relationships between translators and authors that blur, merge and ultimately redefine authorship and translatorship. In this paper, I will explore the latter in relation to an interview that was conducted through the PhD research group, Project DaRT (Discussions and Reflections on Translation), with the author and translator of the Gurugu Pledge, a collection of stories and accounts of migrants living on Mount Gurugu outside the Spanish enclave of Melilla in North Africa. The interview reveals that both the author and the translator are creators of originality and uniqueness yet the existence of the traditional hierarchical relationship between them is self-imposed by the translator in order to promote the author who, as a migrant from Equatorial Guinea, remains invisible within the country of his former coloniser, Spain.
Galician Studies Interdisciplinary Symposium
Dubbing or re-voicing is, at one extreme, a form of censorship; a prevention of the distribution of messages through the application of restrictive measures to inhibit the circulation of ideas that are contrary to one nation’s purported ideology (Lanza, 1997, p. 35). At the other extreme, the call made by Plácido R. Castro in 1949, “a voz de Galicia ten que se ouvir no mundo e as do mundo en Galicia”, is illustrative of how AVT affords those without an ‘extensive’ voice to demonstrate the global relevance of their language and culture. Although the latter is well documented (Barambones et al., 2012; Domínguez, 2005; Hogan-Brun, 2011; E. O’Connell, 2000; E. M. O’Connell, 2003; Yau, 2012), the ‘voices’ of those agents involved in the process of promoting that universal voice is rarely heard. This paper, which forms part of a larger research project into the impact of language planning policy on dubbing practices in Galicia and Catalonia, will assess the role played by political and professional agents involved in audiovisual translation since the inception of TVG in 1985. Through a process of triangulation, these first-hand accounts will be triangulated with language planning policy and translational evidence drawn from a corpus of Galician dubbing scripts. Finally, by adopting the theoretical framework of strategic action (Habermas, 1984), this paper will conclude by evaluating the extent to which these agents were instrumental in promoting Galicia sociolinguistic identity.
Association of Hispanists in Great Britain and Ireland
Award: Postgraduate Scholarship Travel Grant
Finding Their Voice: A multivariate approach exploring the impact of language planning in dubbed television programmes in Galicia and Catalonia from 1980s.
Dubbing is, at one extreme, a form of censorship; at the other, it is a means through which minoritised voices can be heard in this ever-globalised world. Although research has sought to describe the sociolinguistic impact of AVT in minority language communities (Barambones, Merino, & Uribarri, 2012; Domínguez, 2005; Hogan-Brun, 2011; E. O’Connell, 2000; E. M. O’Connell, 2003; Yau, 2012), no studies have attempted to triangulate this description with the translational data using (e.g. dubbing output or subtitles), the personal accounts of those agents involved and the archival material related to language planning. In this paper, I will demonstrate how this novel methodology using corpus-based approaches and CAQDAS software can be applied to two dubbing case studies of dubbing output in Galicia and Catalonia at the outset of their individual audiovisual translation journeys. This comparative approach will describe how the impact of language planning policy can be evidenced in translational output using Critical Discourse Analysis as well as triangulating this with the role that agents involved in translational process had on the final translation. Furthermore, the results will show upon which side of the source-orientated vs. target-orientated dilemma (Cronin, 1995) these two communities fall and discuss whether post-1980 this was always the case.
Barambones, J., Merino, R., & Uribarri, I. (2012). Audiovisual Translation in the Basque Country: The Case of Basque Television-Euskal Telebista (ETB). Meta: Journal des traducteurs, 57, 408. doi:10.7202/1013953ar
Cronin, M. (1995). Altered states: Translation and minority languages. TTR: traduction, terminologie, rédaction, 8(1), 85-103.
Domínguez, X. M. (2005). Un achegamento á tradución para a dobraxe en Galicia. Madrygal. Revista de Estudios Gallegos, 8, 91–96.
Habermas, J. (1984). The theory of communicative action, volume 1: reason and the rationalisation of society. Trans: T. McCarthy). London: Heinemann Educational Books.
Hogan-Brun, G. (2011). Language planning and media in minority language and plurilingual contexts. Current Issues in Language Planning, 12(3), 325-329. doi:10.1080/14664208.2011.609613
Lanza, C. G. (1997). Spanish film translation: Ideology, censorship and the supremacy of the national language. In M. Labrum (Ed.), The Changing Scene in World Languages. Amsterdam/Philadelphia John Benjamins Publishing Company.
O’Connell, E. M. (2003). Minority language dubbing for children: screen translation from German to Irish: Lang.
Yau, W.-P. (2012). Power, Identity and Subtitling in a Diglossic Society. Meta: Journal des traducteurs, 57, 564. doi:10.7202/1017080ar